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Authors earlier this century who described such subaerial dunes were not aware that similar dunes occur underwater in the ocean. Although differences have been described that are used by some authors to distinguish between subaerial dunes and subaqueous dunes, very little work has been done on subaqueous dunes, and I am certain that the sample size is inadequate to draw any conclusions on what can or cannot be found in subaqueous dunes. In any case, the burden of proof is on those who advocate subaerial dunes, since Brand has described a number of trackways that cannot be explained in a subaerial environment without amazing hand waving.

______________________________________________________ Ó 2010 Arthur V. Chadwick, Ph.D.